Paul Halsall/Brooklyn College/1996-99
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This module is an introduction to Chinese culture. The approach will be one which sees culture as the system of shared ideas and meanings, explicit and implicit, which a people use to interpret the world and which serve to pattern their behavior [Patricia Ebrey]. This concept of culture includes an understanding of the art, literature, and history of a society, but also less tangible aspects such as attitudes, prejudices, folklore and so forth. With China we will find a tradition of civilization marked for over 3000 years by the use of writing, urbanization, a developed artistic culture, social stratification and a political structure which more or less successfully coordinated a huge population.
Readings and Texts on the Web
Students are required to do a certain amount of assigned reading outside class. The readings for this course comes in two forms - articles on reserve/[in course packet] and documents and images available on the World Wide Web. By the end of the course students should be able to evaluate for themselves both material from Chinese sources and the varied interpretations given to the to those sources.
World Wide Web
Virtually all of the readings for each class are on the World Wide Web. If you are reading the online version of this syllabus all you need do is to select [often by "clicking"] the texts in question, which are listed under each class. You can then read on screen, or print out the document. [For the computer-phobic copies may be made available in the library reserve room.] This option puts you, as Brooklyn College students, on the cutting edge of technology.
The Internet is now a valuable research tool for students. Accordingly I shall also make this syllabus, course outline, lecture notes, and other class handouts available on the Web. Under each class there may also be reading material (marked as such), gathered from various WWW Extra sites. This material addresses or expands upon issues overlooked in the assigned readings.
Quizzes: There are self-grading quizzes for each section of the course. These are only available on the Class Website. They are for practice only, will not contain the same questions as in class quizzes, but should help you prepare and test yourself.
To access the class page from Netscape or Internet Explorer, just type in (at the prompt):
Class Discussion list
To access a threaded archive of the discussion list - core9china-l, go to:
To access a archive by date posted of the discussion list - core9china-l, go to:
Calendar [for Spring 1999 sections]
Section SA [Monday evenings]
- Projects - decision must be made on option and subject - Feb 22
- Project Options 2/3/4 - bibliography and outline - due March 8
- Project: Option I - final paper due March 22
- Project Options 2/3/4 - final report due April 12
- China Module Exam - March 22
- Final Exam - May 24: 8:30-10:30pm
Section K [Mon/Wed 4:25-5:40pm]
- Projects - decision must be made on option and subject - Mar 29
- Project Options 2/3/4 - bibliography and outline - due Mar 12
- Project: Option I - final paper due May 3
- Project Options 2/3/4 - final report due May 17
- China Module Exam - May 19
- Final Exam - May 26: 6-8pm
ATTENDANCE: Attendance will be taken every class. you are expected to attend every class. If you are absent, you must provide a written excuse and any documentation (e.g. a doctor's note). Any student who is absent more than twice (which is equivalent to six regular class meetings), receives a failing grade. A consistent pattern of lateness will also negatively effect your final grade.
PROJECTS: Projects must be handed in on time, unless an extension is given. They must conform to the Stylesheet guidelines handed out separately.
EXAMS: Make up exams will only be given for medical reasons.
HONOR: Cheating will result in an F for any paper or exam in which it is detected.
CLASS BEHAVIOR: Eating is not appropriate in class. Neither is walking in and out during class time.
Students are encouraged to make an appointment with the instructor to discuss papers and/or issues raised in class.
- Class Projects
-Yet another link to your options for the class project!
- This must be used for papers/projects.
- China Map Exercise
- Not required this semester, but you can still do it for fun!
- How to Write a Paper
- Some hints.
- How Papers Are Graded
- This is what a grader is looking for.
- Sample Essay Evaluation Form
- Another way of saying the same thing.
- How to Activate Your College Email Account
- It's really quite easy - and free for Brooklyn College students.
- How to use the World Wide Web
Now a little outdated, but of historical interest!
- List of Texts on this Site
- A quick run down of the texts included in the section by section outline below.
- List of Images on this Site
- A quick run down of the images included in the section by section outline below.
- List of Class Readings NOT on website
- These are the ones you need to get in the libarary.
- Other China Web Sites
- There is a lot to see about China on the Internet. This is a basic guide.
- Shareware Available at this Site
- Give this link a try - it has a computer fortune telling verion of the I Ching, a Chinese character program and a great astronomy program. All are for Windows or DOS machines.
The course is based on seven thematic sections through which we shall try to come to grips with Chinese culture. The seven sections are:-
In general we shall do one "class" per class meeting. To allow some flexibility, however, I will not assign classes to specific dates. You will know what to read next by where we are in the course.
NOTES ON THE COURSE OUTLINE
- Lecture - lecture notes for each class may be made available. These correspond in some way to what happens in class. For review purposes the topics given under each class should be used.
- Textbook readings are given for W. Scott Morton: China: Its History and Culture. 3d. ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995) This is not a required text, but some students may find it helpful to buy..
- Map links to an online color map related to the lecture..
- Assigments It would be best for you to read ALL the readings. However, they are marked according to priority:
ü means that the text is online.
RED means the text MUST BE READ BEFORE CLASS.
GREEN means it might make more sense to read this text after class
References to WWW Extra refer to optional reading available via the World Wide Web
- References to WWW Link refer to World Wide Web sites related to the class topics.
Section 1: Introduction: The Nature of Culture
Halsall: Nature of Culture ü
Halsall: Culture Worksheet ü Image: Shia Celebration of 10 Muharram Image: Divinity: Shiva as Lord of the Dance Image: Shiva Lingam/Yoni Image: Christ Crucified Image: Christ Crucified Image: Page of Arabic Script and Contextmudra) Image: Buddha from Thailand (touching ground) Image: Picture of the Queen Image: American Flag WWW Extra: Yi Jing [the I Ching] WWW Extra: Yin and Yang in Medical Theory WWW Extra: Program: WinChing: - Windows 3.1 computerized I Ching
Class Topics: The "foreignness" of China/foreignness of the West - stereotypes and cultural traits. Ethnocentrism. Images of China and images of the Chinese.
Section 2: Tiananmen: Gate of Heavenly Peace
Online Self-Grading Quiz
Film: The Gate of Heavenly Peace [Shown in Class]
- The Mandate of Heaven, selections from the Shu Jing ü
Documents on the Gate of Heavenly Peace
[all on the PBS Tiananmen web site]
- GHP - Interview with Directors üon Gate of Heavenly Peace
The GATE OF HEAVENLY PEACE Press Conference October 12, 1995, excepts by Henri Behar
Section 3: Jen: Geography, Language, and Early History
Morton: 5-10 (land and people)
18-21 (language), xix-xx (spelling and pronunciation)
11-17 (Prehistoric origins)
64-70 (Han Culture)
71-75 (Six Kingdoms)
81-84 (Sui and Tang)
84-97 (Tang Culture)
98-112 (Medieval Culture)
On Geography: Politics and Facts
Andrew L. March, "Myth of Asia", in The Idea of China, (New York: Preager, 1974), 23-43, 61-67 ü
- Map: Asia
- Map: East Asia
- Map: China - Physical Features
- Map: China - Political Map
- Map: China - Agricultural Regions
- Map: Modern China from the Encyclopedia Britannica
- Map: China
- Map: China - Modern Population Density
- Map: The Four Great Old World River Valley Civilizations
- Image: The Yangzi River
- WWW Extra: China - Basic Facts
On Language: Dialects and Languages
Map: China - Linguistic Regions Map Chinese Language and Pronunciation ü Chinese Language and Writing ü Pinyin/Wade-Giles Equivalencies ü Chinese Logographic Writing ü Cecil Adams, Chinese Computing, The Village Voice Dec 20, 1995
On Early History: Chinese history from the viewpoint of the elite and the masses
Sima Qian: Extracts from Records of the Grand Historian, two biographies. ü Sima Qian:The Legalist Polices of the Qin ü WWW Extra: Text: Selection of Chinese Poems ü WWW Extra: Chinese Food - Two Texts ü WWW Extra: Sunzi: The Art of War [Other versions: The Art of War. and The Art of War ] ü Image: People: Sunzi Sun tzu, author of the Art of War WWW Extra: Chinese Dynastic History WWW Extra: Chinese Ethnography* Image: Hist. Site: "Peking Man" - early human remains Image: Hist. Site: Longshan remains Image: Hist. Site: Yangshao remains Image: Hist. Site: Xia remains 1 Image: Hist. Site: Xia Remains 2 Image: Art: Shang Oracle Bones 1 Image: Art: Shang Oracle Bones 2 Image: Art: Two Shang Bronze Ritual Vessals Image: Art: Shang Tomb Guardian Image: Art: Shang Bronze 1 Image: Art: Shang Bronze 2 Image: People: The Duke of Zhou Image: People: Portrait of First Emperor Image: People: Another Portrait of First Emperor Image: People: Emperor Huangdi Image: Hist. Site: Archeological Excavations at Qin Site Image: Hist. Site: Tomb of First Emperor at Xian, Lines of Soldier Statues Image: Hist. Site: Tomb of First Emperor at Xian, Soldier Statue close up Image: Art: Qin Bronze 1 Image: Hist. Site: The Great Wall 1 Image: Hist. Site: The Great Wall 2 Image: Hist. Site: The Great Wall 3 Image: Hist. Site.: The Grand Canal in the 19th Century CE Image: Map: China under Han dynasty Image: People: Founder of Han Dynasty Image: Art: Han Dynasty Jar Map: China in the 6th Century CE Image: People: Founder of Sui Dynasty Image: People: Founder of Tang Dynasty Image: People: Second Emperor of Tang Dynasty Map: Changan under the Tang dynasty Image: People: The Empress Wu Image: Art: Tang Camel Image: Art: Tang Lady 1 Image: Art: Tang Lady 2 Image: Art: Tang Horse Image: Art: Tang Vase 1 Image: People: Founder of Song Dynasty Image: Map: China under the Northern Song Dynasty Image: Map: China under Northern Song Dynasty Image: Map: China Under Southern Song Dynasty Image: Art: River in Autumn color Image: Art: Song Poet Image: Art: Song Vase 1 Image: Song Painting: Poetry Contest at Orchard Pavilion Image: Song Painting: Bird on Silk by Emperor Hui-tsang 1101-25 CE Image: Technology: Early Chinese Star Mapping Image: Technology: Use of the Plow in China Image: Technology: Making of Silk Image: Technology: Chinese Use of Paper Image: Technology: Early Paper Money Image: Technology: Tang Dynasty Coin Image: Technology: The earliest printed book - 868 CE Image: Technology: Use of Tea Image: Technology: Use of Crossbow Image: Technology: Chinese Canon from 1368
Geography: Chinese origins. Yellow River. Yangzi River. North and South, Arable land. Notion of "Asia" and "Orient".
Language: Chinese language and Chinese writing. "Language" and "dialect", "tones", "characters"
History: Evolution: humans in China. Origins of complex societies. Shang China: archeology, oracle bones, bronzes, buildings, human sacrifice. Chinese Cultural Coordinates: writing -jen, -yin/yang, dao, the state, history, peasants. The Dynastic Cycle. Zhou dynasty: Mandate of Heaven [Tian], chaos and classics [Confucius and Laozi]. Qin dynasty: Qin Shi Huang-di, Legalism,Great Wal. Han Dynasty: state and examinations, Changan, Central Asia and Rome. Science & Technology: seismograph, compass, paper. Sui dynasty and "Reunification". Tang Dynasty: state and rebellion, Tang art, typical pottery style, Tang Poetry-Li Bo and Wang Wei. Technology: gunpowder, printing. Penetration of Japan and Korea. Penetration by India. Song Dynasty: state, rice economy, art, poetry. Endurance of Chinese World
Section 4: San Jiao: Chinese Religion
Morton: 29-38 (Confucianism)
42-44 (Mohism and Legalism)
- Selections from the Analects, - topically arranged selections from the Confucian classic ü
- WWW Extra: The Analects, complete ü
- WWW Extra: The Great Learning, complete ü
- WWW Extra: The Doctrine of the Mean complete ü
- Selections from the Mencius ü
- WWW Extra: Selections from the Xunzi ü
- WWW Extra: Selections from the Writings of Han Fei (c. 230 BCE) ü
- Image: People: Picture of Confucius
- Image: People: Confucius
- Image: People: Mengzi
- Image: People: Zhuxi - founder of 'neo-confucianism'
- Selection from the Dao De Jing ü
- WWW Extra: The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, version 1, an Interpolation by Peter A. Merel (firstname.lastname@example.org) based upon the translations of: Lin Yutang, Ch'u Ta-Kao, Gia-Fu Feng & Jane English, Richard Wilhelm and Aleister Crowley. complete, taken from internet site
- WWW Extra: The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, Tao Te Ching, version 2, complete, taken from a version on the internet.
- WWW Extra: The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, Tao Te Ching, version 3, complete, taken from a version by S. Mitchell.
- WWW Extra: The Dao De Jing Tao Te Ching*, Tao Te Ching, version 4, complete by Peter Merel, GNL Version.
- WWW Extra: Selections from the Zhuangzi
- Image: Yin-Yang Symbol
- Image: People: Laozi
- Image: Divinity: Three Daoist Gods
- Image: Divinity: The Three Gods of Fortune [San Hsing]
- Image: Divinity: The God of Wealth in His Civil Aspect
- Image: Divinity: Wen-ch'ang, the Daoist God of Literature
- Image: Custom: Picture of New Year's Dragon
- Buddha: First Sermon (c. 6th Century BCE) ü
- Faxian: Account of the Buddhistic Kingdoms. A Chinese traveler's account of the Buddhist kingdoms ü
- WWW Extra: The Teaching of Buddha, an early sermon on Nirvana ü
- WWW Extra: The Dhammpada ü
- WWW Extra: Buddha's Sermon on the No-Self ü
- WWW Extra: The Heart Sutra ü
- WWW Extra: The Gospel of Buddha ü
- WWW Extra: The Word of Buddha ü
- Extract from the Lotus Sutra: The Nature of the Buddha ü
- WWW Extra: Extract from the Lotus Sutra: On Faith ü
- The Legend of Miao-Shan ü
- Opposition to Buddhism: Han Yu: Memorial on Buddhism (819 CE) ü
- In Defense of Buddhism: The Disposition of Error (c. 5th Century CE) ü
- WWW Extra: Chinese Doctrinal Buddhism ü
- WWW Extra: Tricycle Magazine Guide to Basics of Buddhism ü
- Image: Divinity: Relic of Shakyamuni Buddha's Finger at Famin
- Image: Divinity: Baby Buddha Taking a Bath
- Image: Divinity: Buddha from Gupta Period [India]
- Image: Divinity: The Ten Most Important Mudras
- Image: Buddha with earth-touching mudra (bhumisparsha mudra)
- Image: Divinity: Buddha from Thailand (touching ground)
- Image: Divinity: Large Cult Statute of Buddha at Dongzhang
- Image: Divinity: Buddha from Wei
- Image: Divinity: Buddha from Tang Dynasty
- Image: Divinity: Tang Buddha 2
- Image: Divinty: Teaching Buddha from Cave of a Thousand Buddhas
- Image: Divinity: Indian Statute of Maitriya
- Image: Divinity: Tibetan Wood block Print of of Maitriya
- Image: Divinity: Maitreya 3
- Image: Divinity: Maitreya as Pu-tai, the laughing buddha
- Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin Tang Period
- Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin 12th C.
- Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin 13th C
- Image: Divinity: Picture of Kuan Yin 17th C
- Image: Divinity: Kuan-yin sitting in Royal Ease - 12th C
- Image: Divinity: Cambodian Avalokiteshvara sitting in Royal Ease 11th C
- Image: Divinity: Kuan Yin 7
- Image: Divinity: Kuan Yin 8
- Image: Divinity: Kuan Yin 9
- Image: Divinity: Bodhidharma, founder of Ch'an Buddhism
- Image: Divinity: Chan Buddhist Hui-neng tears up the sutras
- Image: Image: Monk doing Zazen
- Image: Divinity: A modern Buddhist Temple at Famin
Confucianism: Confucius: ren, li, junzi, human nature, the state, respect, religion, life after death. Mohism. Legalism: Lord Shang and Han fei. Confucianism vs. Legalism. Japan and Confucius. Neo-Confucianism: Zhu Xi-li (form)/ and Oi (matter). Problems with Confucianism
Daoism: Nature. Laozi and the Dao De Jing. Zhuangzi: Wu wei and the Tao of Physics. Daoism and Confucianism. Popular Daoism
Buddhism: Indian Religion. Gautama: dukkha, Middle Path. Teaching: Dharma and Karma, Tripitaka,3 Precious Things (Jewels). Buddha, dharma. sangha. Four Noble truths. Eightfold path. Sutras. Asoka 272-36 CE. Hinayana/Theravada. Mahayana: Bodhisattvas, Maitreya/Mi-lo-fo/Pu-tai. Avalokitesvara/Guan yin. Amitibha/Amida/O-mi-to-fo.. Buddhism in China: Kumarajiva/ Faxian. Buddhism and Taoism. Lotus Sutra: Sukhavati/pure land.. Buddhist art. Vajrayana/Tibetan Buddhism -Tantra: Dalai Lama. Chan Buddhism: Bodhidharma/Pu-di-da-mo and Hui-neng
Other Religions: Nestorianism. Judaism. Islam and -contacts with Islamic world
Section 5: Chinese Gender Systems
On Gender Systems and Sexuality
- The Homosexual Tradition in China: Selections from Chinese Homosexual Literature ü
- Wu Tsao: China's Lesbian Poet ü
- Vivien W. Ng. "Homosexuality and the State in Late Imperial China ", [in Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vincinus and George Chauncey Jr., eds., Hidden From History: Reclaiming the Gay and Lesbian Past, (New York: NAL, 1989), 76-89]
- Manifesto of 1996 Chinese Tongzhi Conference ü
- Four Recent Press Reports on Gay Life in China ü
- Mary M. Anderson, Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China , (Buffalo NY: Prometheus, 1990), 15-18, 307-11 ü
- Death of China's Last Eunuch, New York Times, December 1996, ü
- Image: Custom: A young eunuch exposes effects of castration
Text: Ban Zhao Pan Chao: Lessons for A Woman:The Views of A Female Confucian (c. 80 CE) ü Margery Wolf, "Chinese Women: Old Skills in a New Context ", in Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo & Louise Lamphere, eds., Women, Culture, and Society , (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1974), 157-72 Dorothy Ko, Teachers of the Inner Chambers: Women and Culture in Seventeenth-Century China, (Stanford CA: Stanford University Press, 1994), 1-26, 142-76 Tom Hilditch, A Holocaust of Girls, from South China Morning Post ü Pruitt, Ida, A Daughter of Han: The Autobiography of a Chinese Working Woman by Ida Pruitt from the Story Told Her by Ning Lao T'ai t'ai, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945, repr. Stanford CA; Stanford University Press, 1967) Daughter of Han Reading Guide ü Text: Women in China: History and the Present ü WWW Extra: Fu Xuan: Poem on Woman (c, 3rd, Century CE) WWW Extra: Women in China: Press ReportsWWW Extra: Modern Marriage in China - Two Texts ü WWW Extra: NY Times Report on Recent UN Women's Conference ü Image: Custom: Picture of Woman With Feet Unbound Image: Custom: Picture of Unbound Feet Close Up Image: Custom: Woman with bound feet (shoed) Image: Custom: A bound foot - closeup Image: People: Ning Lao T'ai-t'ai
Class Topics: Gender, eunuch, Mia Xia. Ban Zhao, Patrilinearity, Bound Feet, Communist Marriage Ethic
Section 6: Zhong guo: China and the World I
Morton: 115-22 (Mongols)
123-27, 133-36 (Ming)
- Marco Polo, Selection from The Travels of Marco Polo ü
- Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers, (New York: Random House, 1987), pp. 3-30 excerpts ü
- Lynda Shaffer, China, Technology and Change, World History Bulletin, 4:1ü
- WWW Extra: Matteo Ricci, Selection from his Journals (1583-1610 CE)) ü
- WWW Extra: Matteo Ricci, The Art of Printing ü
- Map: The Mongol Empire
- Image: People: Genghis Khan
- Image: People:: Kublai Khan
- Image: People: Kublai Khan 2
- Image: Hist Illus.: Mongol Archers
- Image: People: Marco Polo
- Image: Art: Statuette of Actor under Yuan Dynasty
- Map: China - Under Ming Dynasty
- Image: People: Founder of Ming Dynasty
- Image: Divinity: A Ming Dynasty Temple
- Image: Hist. Illus.: The Ming Tribute System
- Image: Art: Ming Dynasty Vase
- Image: Art: Ming Vase 2
- Image: Art: Mountain Landscape
- Image: People: The Jesuit Missionary, Matthew Ricci
- Image: Hist. Site: Peking - Hall of Harmony
- Image: Hist. Site: Peking - Dragon Throne
- Image: Hist. Site: Peking - Walls
- Image: Hist. Site: Kaifeng
- Image: People: The Emperor Kangxi
- Image: Image: Qing dynasty 18th Century Vase
- Image: Technology: A Ming Dynasty Wheelbarrow
- Image: People: Zhang he
- Image: People: Zhang he 2
- Image: People: Zhang he 3
Class Topics: Yuan Dynasty (Mongols): Genghis Khan/Temuchin and Kublai KhanGuo. Shoujing and the advance of astronomy. Plays and opera. Ming Dynasty. Nanking and Beijing, expansion, the state and autocracy. Confucianism: Three Perfections: painting, poetry, calligraphy. Art: painting, pottery. Foreign trade-voyages of Zheng He. Macao. Jesuits in China Tian/Shang di or Tian zhu. Qing conquest. prosperity and technology. Qing world system. Kang Xi and Qian Long. Art, library [Jing, shi, zhe, ji] novels [Dream of the Red Chamber]
Section 7: China and the World II
Morton: 127-33 (Maritime Expeditions and Jesuits)
148-74 (The Impact of the West)
175-81 (Early 20th Century China)
181-95 (Communist Party)
195-99 (War with Japan)
200-25 (Communist Revolution and Cultural Revolution)
226-45 ("New" Communism)
246-263 (World Relations)
264-292 (Modern Chinese Society)
- Qian Long Ch'ien-lung, "Letter to George III" ü
- Commissioner Lin's Letter to Queen Victoria ü
- The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864 ü
- Sun Yat-sen: Fundamentals of National Reconstruction (1923 CE) ü
- Mao Zedong: The People's Democratic Dictatorship ü
- Recent American Press Worries about Chinese Power ü
- Sun Y Y., The Chinese Reassessment of Socialism, 1976-1992, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995) üWWW Extra: The Hai-lu,, a Chinese traveler's account of the West in the 18th century. ü
- WWW Extra: Luxun Two Selections from His Writingü
- Image: People: Qian Long
- Image: Opium Smokers
- Image: Hist. Illus.: Chinese View of an 18th Century English Sailor
- Image: Map: China's Problems in the Late 19th Century
- Image: Anti-Chinese Cartoon from 1877 bw
Image: People: Cixi Tse hsi The Dowger Empress
- Image: People: Cixi Tse hsi The Dowger Empress
- Image: People: Henry Pu Yi as a child - the "Last Emperor" of China [so far]
- Image: People: Sun Yat Sen
- Image: People: The writer Lu Xun
- Image: People: Chiang Kai-shek
- Image: Chaiman Mao
- Image: People: Deng Xiaoping
- Image: Hist. Illus.: The Goddess of Democracy, Tienanmen Square
- Image: Hist. Illus.: The Goddess of Democracy, Tienanmen Square
- Image: Hist. Illus.: Tienanmen Square: Student Stops Tanks
- Image: Flag: People's Republic of China
- Image: Flag: Republic of China/Taiwan
The Western Intrusian: Qian Long's Letter to George III. Lord Macartney. East India Co.Macao, Canton, Tea, Opium and War. Treaty of Nanking. Missionaries.
Internal Collapse: Taipings and Hing Xiuchuan, Nian. Comparison with Japan and Meiji era 1868 on. Tong zhi Restoration 1860s. Cixi: Court life.Boxer Rebellion
Nationalism: Sun Yat-sen. Three Principles? [People's nationalism, People's Democracy, People's Livelihood] May 4th Movement. Beijing National University. Luxun. Kuo Min Tang and Warlord Period
Communism: The CCP and Mao Zedong. Soviets. Long march. Red Army and CCP. Marxism and peasants. Nationalists and Taiwan. Communist Government: land reform and thought reform. "Great Leap Forward", "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution". Mao, Liu Shaoqui and Zhou Enlai. 1976 and All That - the Gang of Four. Deng Xiaoping and -New "communism". Four Modernizations. Population control. Limits and Tian an men Square. China and the World. Pacific Rim. Tibet. Hong Kong
General Reference Documents
Student Papers/Web Pages
Some students choose to create web pages as the their class projects. These projects are linked from here. Copyright remains with the students, who were responsible for securing any necessary permissions. Note that the quality of the sites varies! Some excellent student papers from previous semesters are posted here [with the writers' permission] as examples [and inspirations]. When outside links from the student webpages fail, they will not be updated.
- Religion and Beliefs
- Immigrant Life
- China in New York
- Hoi-Hung Tsang: The Chinese Government Compound
The Web is so vast now that it contains more, and more diverse information, than any single printed source. This availability of information will only increase and is a truly splendid new tool to help in your research. To use the Web efficiently, the various search engines are essential. It is important to form your query words as clearly as possible. For instance, if you are interested in finding information on a particular musician, do not search for "music", but for a style [eg "jazz" or "gregorian chant"] or even a name ["abba", "charlie parker", "hildegard"].
Here are links to the best "wide area" search engines on the Web. Yahoo is best, I think, if you are looking for specialized websites. Lycos, Excite, and Hotbot all index many more documents. These engines will always turn up more references, but far more will be dross than with Yahoo. It is useful to start with Yahoo since it has a nice feature - once it tells you everything that it has found, it will automatically plug you in to the other search engines.
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The author of this site was Paul Halsall Last updated: June 2 1999