Chinese Cultural Studies: Pinyin/Wade-Giles Names
Although the the pinyin system is easier than the Wade-Giles sytem, some names are so familiar in Wade-Giles, and appear so different in pinyin, that the follwing list might prove useful. It should also be added that, further complicatin the issue, some names are traditionally known in dialect form rather than "correct" Wade-Giles [for instance the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek], others are known from the distinct names given by the Chinese postal service in the early 20th century, and finally some names derive from exclusively European sources, for instance "Formosa" for Taiwan, and "Canton" for "Guangzhou". I have tried to sort all these out below. The table is also a useful reference for dates and so forth.
Traditional Pinyin Significance PEOPLE [in approx chron. order] Confuci us, K'ung Fu-tsu Kung Fu Zi 551-479 BCE philosopher - Confucian Lao-tzu Laozi 6th C BCE? philosopher - Daoist Mo-tzu Mozi, Mo Di 470-391? BCE philosopher - Mohist Mencius, Meng-tsu Mengzi, 372-289? BCE philosopher - Confucian Hsün-tzi Xun zi 298-235 BCE philosopher - Confucian Sun Tzu Sun Zi , c. 5-6th cent.? war theorist BCE Chuang Chou, Ch'uang-tzu Zhuangzi c. 300 BCE philosopher - Daoist Shang Yang Shang Yang, d. 338 BCE philosopher - legalist Ch'ih-shih Huang Ti Qin Shi Huang Di First emperor Ssuma Ch'ien Sima Qian c.145-85 BCE historian Han Fei-tzu Han Fei Zi 280?-233/4 BCE philosopher - legalist Fa-hsien Faxian c.399-414 CE Buddhist traveler Chu Hsi Zhu Xi 1130-1200 CE philosopher - neo-Confucian Ssuma Kuang Siam Guang 1019-1086 CE historian Li T'ai-po Li Bo ,c.1200 CE poet - S. Song dynasty. Chu Yüan-chang Zhu Yuanzhang r.1368-1398 1st Ming - the Hung Wu CE emperor Tsao Hsueh-chin Cao Xueqin ?1724-1764 C novelist - Dream of Red CE Chamber K'ang-hsi Kang Xi 1661-1722 CE 2nd Qing emp. Yung Cheng Yong Zheng 1723-1736 CE 3rd Qing emp. Ch'ien-lung Qian Long 1736-1795 CE 4th Qing emp. Tz'u Hsi Cixi 1838-1908 CE the "empress dowager" Lu Hsun Lu Xun d.1936 CE modern writer Sun Yat-sen [dialect Sun 1866-1925 CE politican - nationalist form], Sun Wen Yüan Shih-k'ai Yuan Shikai, d. 1916 CE President ROC, 1912 Ch'iang Kai-shek [dialect Jiang Jieshi 1888-1975 CE politician - nationalist form] Mao Tse-tung Mao Zedong 1893?-1976 CE Communist leader Chou En-lai Zhou Enlai d. 1976 Communist politician Teng Hsiao-peng Deng Xiaoping Communist politican DIVINE BEINGS Amitabha [Sanskrit] O-mi-to Fo Jap. "Amida", Buddha of Western Paradise Maitreya [Sanskrit] Mi-lo Fo the Buddha to come Avalokitshvara [Sanskrit] Guan Yin Bodhisattva of Infinite Kuan Yin [Wade Giles] Compassion DYNASTY NAMES Shang Shang c. 16C-1027 BCE Chinese bronze age Chou Zhou 1027-221 BCE "classic" period of Chinese culture Ch'in Qin 221-206 BCE origin of western name "China" Han Han 206 CE-221 CE now name of ethnic Chinese Sui Sui 589-618 CE T'ang Tang 618-907 CE Sung Song 960-1127 Yüan [Mongol] Yuan 1280-1368 Ming Ming 1368-1644 means "brilliant" Ch'ing [Manchu] Qing [Manzhou] 1644-1911CE Kuomintang [the KMT] Gua Min Dang, f. 1912 CE Chinese Nationalist Party PLACES - Cities [north to south] Harbin Harbin in Heilongjiang province [Manchuria] Kirin Jilin in Jilin province [Manchuria] Ch'angch'un Changchun in Jilin province [Manchuria] Shenyang/Fengt'ien/Mukden Shenyang in Liaoning province [Manchuria] Anshan Anshan in Liaoning province [Manchuria] T'angshan Tangshan in Hebei province Dalien/Talien/Dairen Lüda Peking Beijing "northern capital", cap Yuan, Ming, Qing Tientsin Tianjin T'aiyuan Taiyuan in Shanxi province Tsinan Jinan in Shandong province Ch'ingtao or Tsingtao Qingdao in Shandong province Lanchou Lanzhou in Gansu province K'aifeng Kaifeng in Henan province, cap. N. Song dyn. Ch'ang-an [now Sian] Changan [now Xian] in Henan. cap. Qin, Han, Sui, & Tang dyns. Loyang Luoyang in Henan, cap. Han dynasty Nanking Nanjing "southern capital", cap. Ming dyn., ROC Shanghai Shanghai largest city in modern China Hangchow Hangzhou In Zhejiang province. cap Sth. Song dyn. Wuhan. inc. Hankow Wuhan, inc. Hankow in Hubei province Ch'engtu Chengdu in Sichuan province Chungking Chongqing in Sichuan province Ch'angsha Changsha in Hunan province Nanch'ang Nangchang in Jiangxi province Foochow Fuzhou in Fujian province K'unming Kunming in Yunnan province Hsiamen or Amoy Xiamen In Fujian province, old treaty port Canton Guangzhou in Guangdong province Hong Kong Xianggang British trade port Macao Aumen Portuguese trade port PLACES - Provinces [nth. to sh] Heilungchiang Heilongjiang in Manchuria Kirin Jilin in Manchuria Liaoning Liaoning in Manchuria Hopei or Hopeh Hebei around Beijing Shantung Shandong Shansi Shanxi loc. of Xian, early Chinese culture Shensi Shaanxi Kansu Gansu Ch'inghai Qinghai Henan Honan loc. of Luoyang, Tanf cap. Anhui Anhui Kiangsu Jiangsu location of Nanking Szech'uan or Szechwan Sichuan now larges pop. in China Hupei or Hupeh Hubei Chekiang Zhejiang location of Hangzhou Hunan Guizhou Chianghsi or Kiangsi Jiangxi Fukien Fujian Yünnan Yunnan Kwangsi Guangxi Kwangtung Guangdong center of modern economic growth PLACES - other Yellow River Huang Ho Yang-tse River Yangzi Formosa [Portugues Taiwan cuurent location of Rep. of "beautiful"] China Manchukuo Manzhougou Japanese client state in Manchuria BOOKS The Five Classics Wu Jing "jing" means "classic" I Ching Yi Jing Book of Changes Shu Ching Shu Jing Book of History of Documents Shi Ching Shi Jing Book of Odes Li Ching Li Jing Book of Ritual -Li shi -Li Ji -best known part of Book of Ritual Ch'un ch'iu Chunqui Spring and Autumn Annals The Four Books Shi Shu Confucian classics - all after Confucius Lun-yü Lun yu the "Analects" Meng-tzu Mengzi sayings of Mencius Ta Hsio Da Xue The Great Learning, pt of Book of Rites Chung Yung Jung Yung The Doctine of the Mean, pt of Book of Rites Tao Te Ching Dao De Jing Classic of the Way and Virtue Shih Chi Shi Ji "Historical Records" of Sima Qian CONCEPTS tien tian "Heaven" tao dao the "Way" ch'i qi "matter of an object" li "form of an object" wen wen writing, civil goverment p'u simplicity po animal or life soul hun spiritual, or personality soul shen "gods" wu wu action wu wei wu wei non-action yang yang male yin yin female Confucian Virtues ren "humanity" [humanitas] li ritual, courtesy yi uprightness zhi moral knowledge xin faithfulness, integrity Zhing loyalty, steadfastness Misc Ch'an Chan Chinese "Zen" Buddhism
Please send any comments or corrections to Paul Halsall